The art and the science (mainly the science) of cyphering and decyphering messages.
This matter involves a lot of maths so ... you have been advised ...
There are two types of cryptography :
The problem of the security box
You have an important information and you want to keep it safe using a security box.
You need the same key to open and close the security box.
This is symmetric cryptography : using the same password (key) with an algoritm to secure data.
The standard nowadays is AES 256
The problem of the letter box
You want many people to send you letters but you wanna for sure than only you can read them.
You need a key for the people who send letters and a different key for you.
This is asymmetric cryptography : using two different passwords (keys) with an algoritm to transfer secure data from multiple sources to one destination (without allowing one source to decipher messages from another).
The most common today is RSA 1024/2048
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